Our Quick Keys for Best Practice

01.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
Frostnip is the first stage of frostbite.  That occurs when the most distal parts of the body become cold and numb due to intense cold exposure and have a burning sensation upon entering a warm environment.
Frostbite occurs when those sa
me distal parts start to literally freeze from the outside in.  Immersing those affected areas into warm water after getting into a warm environment is the treatment of choice ONLY if the victim is not close to a medical facility.  Otherwise that medical facility personnel should do it.

01.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
In MOST situations, external bleeding can be controlled easily with constant pressure with a clean dressing or cloth.
However, in a volatile or dangerous situation, use of a commercially-prepared tourniquet or even a homemade one may be required to minimize blood loss until rescuer and victim safety is secured and proper medical care can be obtained.

02.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
A stroke or CVA (cerebrovascular accident) can either be caused by bleeding into the brain (hemorrhagic) which is less common and less lethal OR by a blood clot in a cerebral blood vessel (ischemic) which is most common and quite lethal. 
Always call 911 early for any suspected signs or symptoms of a stroke.  To recognize the signs of any stroke FAST:
F - Facial Grimace
A - Arm Drift, Weakness or Paralysis
S - Speech Difficulty
T - Time of Onset

02.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
Once a potential ischemic stroke is recognized, which is often caused by a blood clot, a thrombolytic can be given.  This medication, otherwise known as a "clot buster," works best if it is given within 3 hours from the onset of symptoms.  In this way, permanent stroke symptoms can be minimized if not reversed!
As with everything, early recognition is key for best outcome!

03.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
Initially, in a very hot environment, whether inside or outside, one may experience heat cramps which occurs largely due to poor overall hydration and subsequent electrolyte imbalance. 
These muscle cramps can lead to heat exhaustion where someone appears very pale if they have a lighter skin tone or very gray if they have a darker skin tone, is sweating profusely, and feels dizzy, cold and weak.
The solution is to immediately get the victim to a cooler environment, give water or sports drink, and call 911 as appropriate!

03.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
The MOST extreme stage or condition that can result from dehydration and/or heat exposure is calle heat stroke (hyperthermia).
THIS is a severe life-threatening emergency!
The victim will appear generally hot, red, and dry whereby everyone is sweating profusely.  Once again, the solution is to immediately get the victim to a cooler environment, give water or sports drink, and call 911 quickly!

04.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
As most would know, their are a few items we can identify that are available to alleviate a sudden illness or attack and/or buy time until definitive life-saving treatment.
Some of these self-rescue medications can be "stand-alone" agents or again be used as a "band-aid" measure until EMS arrive.  They include:
Asthma - Rescue Inhaler
Allergic Reaction - Epinephrine Pen
Angina - Aspirin and/or Nitroglycerin
Hypoglycemia - Glucose Tablets

04.25
Historically, there has been irrational fear to care for any victim with the chance of causing or worsening any neck or spinal injury.  However, it has to be noted that only 2% of all trauma results in a neck or spinal injury.  That means 98% of the time there is none.
Bottom line is when someone is unresponsive and breathless, just do CPR!  No holds barred!
On the other hand, when someone is awake and complains about significant pain or discomfort in the neck area OR numbness or tingling to bilateral fingers or toes after an injury, neck mobility should be restricted and 911 should be called!

05.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
A heart attack can include chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath, dizziness, and many other signs and symptoms; however, the MOST common sign or symptom of a heart attack is DENIAL.
Most people believe a heart attack has to be overtly recognizable, and they can be, but most of the time the symptoms can be mistaken for "just" the flu or indigestion.  
Don't be fooled!

05.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
The MOST effective means to control bleeding is direct pressure.  As for the remaining letters in the acronym DICE, they include ice, cold compress, and elevation but FIRST and FOREMOST is direct pressure!

06.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
For IMMEDIATE burn care, whether thermal, chemical or electrical, the best and only treatment most of the time if not all of the time is cool running water. 
No creams, lotions, ointments, or even food products!  Copious amounts of cool water is paramount!

06.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
The MOST effective means to prevent cross-contamination of pathogenic microorganisms  and potential infection to rescuer and victim alike is proper and regular handwashing before, but definitely after, caring for someone.
Yes, use appropriate PPE when necessary,
but regularly wash your DANG hands!

07.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
The MOST effective means to remove an embedded tick is to use tweezers or a tick-removing device.  Using any other (stupid) means exponentially increases the risk of developing a lifelong debilitating illness such as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever or Lyme Disease, for instance.

07.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
Is it necessary to make a splint for any possible break or fracture?  A lot of times this could cause more pain and potential harm in doing so.  REST is the most important thing for any musculoskeletal injury.  As for the remaining letters in the acronym RICE, they include ice, cold compress, and elevation but FIRST and FOREMOST is rest!

08.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
Bees are the only insect that leave their stinger behind.
The MOST effective means to remove an embedded stinger is with a credit card, ruler, or the back edge of a knife.  Anything flat will do to scrape it out. 
Refrain from using tweezers as this action may squeeze more toxin internally causing a greater allergic reaction!

08.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
Upon any intentional or accidental poisoning or exposure whether it is ingestion, inhalation, absorption or injection, the MOST helpful thing to have on hand for poison control, EMS and/or ER personnel is the bottle or container in a home setting, for example, or the SDS (MSDS) sheet of information from the work setting.

09.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
Shock, otherwise referred to as inadequate tissue perfusion, is present with every illness or injury to one degree or another.
Severe symptoms will include feeling cold, weak and dizzy.  To prevent AND treat shock, universal treatment is providing rest and warmth.

09.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
If someone develops a nosebleed, the BEST way to control it is to have them lean forward and pinch just below the bony prominence.
Direct pressure controls the nosebleed while leaning forward prevents any postnasal drip keeping the person from coughing up blood consistently and/or vomiting coagulated blood severely.

10.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
Forcing someone to stay awake, whether adult or child, for so-many hours after a head injury is a myth.  It doesn't help anyone.
Immediate or delayed loss of consciousness OR serious concern, however, IS a call to 911!
Otherwise, just monitor for severe headache, vomiting more than once, difficulty walking or talking, or any symptoms that persist.

10.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
The MOST important things to do for someone having a seizure is to move furniture away from them AND place a soft nonbulky item under their head.
The MOST important things NOT to do is to hold them down OR place anything in their mouth.  Those myths will only hurt them or you.

11.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
When someone is not acting quite right OR is unconscious AND they have a suspected or definite history of diabetes, their blood sugar level is probably dangerously low.
ALWAYS provide some source of sugar, such as juice or soda if awake OR CAUTIOUSLY provide syrup or jelly if not so awake, AND call 911 if no improvement.  Low blood sugar is life-threatening from seconds to minutes whereas high blood sugar is life-threatening from hours to days.

11.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
There are two highly venomous spiders in North America.  They are the Brown Recluse and the Black Widow.  The Brown Recluse is indigenous to the Midwest.  It is often found in remote wooded locations and is a rare bite overall.
The bite initially appears to have a white halo around a small red spot resembling a target.  If that bite is suspect, the most important action is to  call 911 and/or seek medical attention immediately.

12.07
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
There are two types of snake bites:  venomous and nonvenomous.  Venomous snake bites usually have two fang marks about an inch apart, whereas nonvenomous snake bites are a horseshoe shape of little teeth.
All snake bites warrant a 911 call at minimum due to the dangerous local and/or systemic effects of the bite and/or venom.

12.25
A Quick Key for Basic FIRST AID:
Hypothermia occurs when a person develops a systemic cold state.  It starts with merely feeling too cold and the second stage is uncontrollable shivering.
However, the final stage can be lethal and it is recognized by cessation of shivering, confusion, and weakness.  Warmth, rest and 911 are quite paramount for survival!

01.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
When in doubt, especially when breathing or circulation quality or presence is questionable, and the person is unconscious, it is ALWAYS better to start CPR than not.
Overhesitation to start CPR is the greatest challenge for nearly everyone.  In other words, when in doubt, just do it!

01.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Each and every AED needs to be strategically-placed for easy access and visually-apparent for daily awareness!  It cannot be placed in a drawer, behind a plant, or far removed from the public eye!
Evidenced by many reports and articles, AEDs that have been out-of-sight and out-of-mind are forgotten at the worst time when a victim collapses.

02.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
In order to use ANY AED regardless of brand, there are only three steps overall:  Turn it on, apply the pads, and follow the voice prompts.
Some AEDs have text prompts, a lot have light prompts, but they ALL have voice prompts!  It'll repeat the same directions over and over again until it has human compliance.

02.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
People think we only breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.  This is only partially true.
Room air is comprised of 70% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 9% inert gases.  When we inhale this mix, we only use about 5% of the oxygen present.  That means we actually "waste" 16% of the original 21% and exhale a little more than 3 times the amount we needed in the first place.
That is how we can rescue breathe for another person one way or another!

03.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
When doing CPR, it is extremely important to count out LOUD!  With that, others can discover the dire situation at hand when walking by.  Secondly, the communication helps with best practice and optimal orchestration of the lifesaving efforts.
And finally, with the loudest and consistent counting, EMS upon arrival will be led to the location finding victim and rescuers quicker and easier!

03.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
It has been found, with defibrillation, time IS key.
In the '50's and '60's, one would bring a cardiac arrest victim to the large defibrillator in the hospital setting where ONLY a specialized physician could operate it. It rarely worked.
In the '70's and '80's, a paramedic would bring a heavy defibrillator to a cardiac arrest victim's side in many a prehospital setting.  It sometimes worked.
However, in the '90's through now, nearly anyone could grab an automated external defibrillator or AED and use it.  It is not only easy and light but it can often work!

04.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Through evidence-based medicine and study, it has been found in order to do high-quality CPR, one needs to do two things.
The first is to push very slow and shallow when doing chest compressions.  The second is to give ventilations so hard you inflate the feet to the size of clown feet.
If you thought ANY of this was true in any way, shape, or form, Happy April Fool's Day!

04.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
As most would know, when someone is in cardiac arrest and in need of CPR, we ALWAYS proceed in the order of CAB beginning with chest compressions!
Conversely, when someone is obviously breathing well and in need of FIRST AID instead, whether conscious or unconscious, we should always proceed in the order of ABC beginning with airway protection.

05.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Evidence-based medicine and study has shown that for every minute that goes by when someone is in cardiac arrest, 10% of their potential for successful resuscitation is lost.
How does this translate to good news?  If the earliest 911, CPR, and AED occurs within a few minutes of collapse at the worst, there could be a minimum 70% chance of survival!

05.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Immediately after any shock or no shock,
start CPR beginning with chest compressions!
No pausing! No waiting! No checking!
Just start CPR now!

06.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
There should be only two times compressions aren't done when CPR/AED is needed:
1) When the ventilations are being provided.
2) When an AED is analyzing and offering a shock or no shock.
Bottom line is to maximize compression time!

06.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Scene safety is ALWAYS the first consideration, whether inhospital or prehospital, whether healthcare provider or lay rescuer.  Your safety IS always priority one!
As a matter of fact, situational awareness should be a regular life skill.

07.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Once confirmation is made of scene safety for rescuer(s) and then unresponsiveness of victim, that CPR rescuer should point and delegate people to call 911 and get an AED!
Using this process in the beginning is BEST practice for ALL rescuers!

07.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Every AED with current programming will offer an analysis and then a shock or no shock but right afterwards we should start with chest compressions ideally with a new CPR rescuer.
After 5 sets of CPR or 2 minutes worth of time, the AED will look to analyze again.  It is very cyclical until definitive breathing resumes or EMS arrive.

08.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Once a collapsed victim is found to be unresponsive and breathless at minimum, they ARE assessed as being dead.  The victim needs good CPR started.  We NEED to push hard and fast, up to 2" at best, to provide the most optimal artificial circulation!
So, it is a USUAL expectation that ribs will break due to the state of osteoporosis in the bones especially in adults.  In short, if you're not crackin', you're slackin'!

08.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Outside a hospital or professional setting, there has been no known litigation when 911 is called expeditiously, CPR is initiated timely, and AED is utilized appropriately.
Lawsuits come about due to the lack of basic preparation, the consequences of blatant inaction, or the appearance of bystander apathy.

09.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
The third most common concern is disease transmission after further injury and future litigation.  It has been found that there is a less than 0.98% chance of catching any disease doing any form of mouth-to-mouth through evidence-based medicine and study.
Regardless, if no barrier device is available, hands-only CPR has been found to be effective, if not more effective, than our conventional CPR.  In other words, just do it!

09.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Whenever there's a situation that warrants a rescue and defibrillation, there are primary roles and secondary roles.
Primary roles, all equally important, include 1) the CPR rescuer, 2) the AED rescuer, and 3) the 911 caller.
Secondary roles, in this order, could include 1) any crowd controllers to ensure victim privacy, 2) any human beacons in and outside the building for EMS direction, and 3) any elevator holder on the first level of the building for EMS priority.

10.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
The absolute purpose of CPR is to not necessarily revive anyone alone since the success rate has only been on average 5% over the last 80 some odd years.
The real purpose of CPR is to merely provide the most optimal artificial breathing and artificial circulation OR artificial life until the earliest defibrillation is available.
Early defibrillation with CPR has had up to an 80% success rate compared to only 5% with the earliest CPR alone.

10.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
If an unresponsive victim is found to have inadequate or absent breathing, 911 and AED should have already been obtained or delegated AND high-quality CPR started.
If an unresponsive victim is found to have adequate breathing, again 911 and AED should have already been obtained or delegated BUT the victim should be rolled onto their side in a recovery position.

11.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
BLS providers, such as healthcare workers, are given the luxury of checking a victim's breathing and pulse as assessment tools whereas lay rescuers are instructed to only check a victim's breathing.
However, neither rescuer can go wrong if breathing alone appears to be inadequate or absent and CPR is started!  Better to do it than not!

11.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
Best placement to provide high-quality chest compressions on an adult or child is with two hands stacked on the lower half of the breastbone or between the nipples.  Seriously, even if we are talking age or augmentation with any woman, for example, between the nipples always works.  And that is the truth!

12.01
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
When doing CPR, specifically compressions, it is important to push down at least two inches on an adult and at least a third of the chest diameter on a child or infant.
It is equally important to have full chest recoil on anyone to allow good refill of blood in the heart for the next chest compression.
It should be a 50/50 proposition!

12.15
A Quick Key for Good CPR/AED:
If conventional CPR is chosen over hands-only CPR, each ventilation should only be over 1 second OR just enough to see the chest rise.  No more!
With excessive ventilation, there is not only a chance of gastric distention, vomiting and aspiration but it will also cause intrathoracic pressure, poor cardiac output, limited tidal volume, and restricted coronary perfusion.
All of that will reduce the chance for survival!